2019-2020 Academic Catalog 
    
    Aug 09, 2022  
2019-2020 Academic Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

Courses


 
  
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    BIOL 084 - Biodiversity


    Students will explore the diversity of life on earth and the mechanisms by which this diversity is thought to have been generated. The implications of loss of biodiversity will be considered, as well as the causes of biodiversity decline. Conservation issues will be addressed. Fulfills the Science Perspective. Not for biology majors. Offered every year. Students will be charged a lab fee upon registering for this course.

    Course Designation/Attribute: SP

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year

  
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    BIOL 101 - Introduction to Biology I


    The goals of the two-semester biology introductory sequence are: (1) to provide an understanding of the unifying themes in modern biology, (2) to introduce the diversity of life at all levels of organization, and (3) to illustrate the methods and modes of scientific inquiry currently used in the biological sciences. During the fall semester (BIOL 101) the focus is on fundamental principles of evolution and genetics, whereas in the spring (BIOL 102) the diversity of life, from cells to organisms, is explored. The fall and spring courses do not have to be taken in sequence but both are pre-requisites for all advanced courses in biology. The labs accompanying BIOL 101 provide practice in biological investigative techniques, critical thinking, and scientific communication through a series of lab exercises directly related to lecture content.  The FYI labs follow a different curriculum, providing a research experience spanning the semester and directly investigating the rising need for the development of new antibiotics.  

    Corequisites: Must register for lab for BIOL 101.

    Course Designation/Attribute: SP

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year.

  
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    BIOL 102 - Introduction to Biology II


    The goals of this two-semester course are: (1) to provide an understanding of the unifying themes in modern biology, (2) to introduce the diversity of life at all levels of organization, and (3) to illustrate the methods and modes of scientific inquiry currently used in the biological sciences. During the fall semester (BIOL 101) the focus is on fundamental principles of evolution and genetics, whereas in the spring (BIOL 102) the diversity of life, from cells to organisms, is explored. The two courses do not have to be taken in sequence but both are pre-requisites for all advanced courses in biology. Students will be charged a lab fee upon registering for this course.

    Course Designation/Attribute: SP

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered in sequence every year

  
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    BIOL 105 - Evolution


    An introduction to the mechanisms and patterns of evolutionary change. Although this course will briefly survey the major evolutionary events that have occurred since life first evolved, the emphasis will be on mechanisms of evolutionary change (e.g. mutation, natural selection, genetic drift and gene flow) and resultant patterns (e.g. phylogenetic pattern, coevolution, stasis, adaptive radiation).

    Prerequisites: BIOL 100 , BIOL 101  or BIOL 103 , and BIOL 102 , or permission.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year.

  
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    BIOL 106 - Introductory Biostatistics


    An introduction to mathematical and statistical methods that are most useful to biologists, this course provides skills that are useful in organizing and summarizing data, graphic methods of data presentation, and testing hypotheses based on experimental results. Key mathematical methods for describing biological phenomena are included, along with basic techniques for identifying differences among groups and relationships among variables. This course may be used by biology majors to fulfill part of their mathematics requirement. Alternatively, it may be counted among the required 10 biology courses for the major.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 101  or BIOL 103 , and BIOL 102 , and one semester of calculus (MATH 120  or MATH 124 ).

    Course Designation/Attribute: FA

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year.

  
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    BIOL 109 - Microbiology


    Introduces the fundamental principles and methods of microbiology with applications to the biomedical and environmental sciences. In the laboratory, students will isolate, cultivate, and characterize an unknown microorganism, and then identify the organism using modern molecular methods.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 101  or BIOL 103 , BIOL 102  and CHEM 102 ; or permission of instructor.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year

  
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    BIOL 110 - Introduction To Botanical Diversity


    Biodiversity and structure of plants, protists and fungi are examined in a phylogenetic context. The evolution of photosynthetic mechanisms, transport systems and nutritional modes are considered, as are the ecological and economic significance of plants and other organisms traditionally studied by botanists.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 100 , BIOL 101  or BIOL 103 , and BIOL 102 .

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every other year.

  
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    BIOL 111 - Comparative and Human Anatomy


    During the Vertebrate and Human Comparative Anatomy Course, students will be introduced to vertebrate anatomy. The lecture component will focus on the development and evolution of anatomy, examine the diversity of structures possessed by vertebrates, how these structures are used and function, and how they relate to one another. The laboratory component will give the students a hands-on experience with anatomy. The labs will focus on dissection of the shark and cat, with material from a diversity of vertebrates available for comparison and evolutionary context. The course assumes that students are familiar with general biology, and knowledge of evolution is recommended, although not required.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 103, and BIOL 102

    Course Designation/Attribute: SP

    Anticipated Terms Offered: every year

  
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    BIOL 114 - Marine Biology


    Introduces the diversity and ecology of life in the oceans. Studies of basic physical oceanography and marine ecology precede studies of marine ecosystems such as salt marshes, kelp forests, rocky shores plankton and deep seas. Also included are the relationships of marine biology to the welfare of mankind.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 100 , BIOL 101  or BIOL 103 , and BIOL 102 , or permission.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year.

  
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    BIOL 117 - Epidemiology


    Epidemiology investigates the distribution and causes of disease in the population. It is therefore a cornerstone of public health, revealing risk factors for disease as well as how disease may be prevented. Topics to be covered will include: the dynamics of disease transmission, natural history of disease, validity of diagnostic tests, preventative & therapeutic measures, risk estimation, genetic and environmental contribution to disease, as well as ethical issues. The course is designed to be the first exposure to this discipline and is appropriate for interested students in any major, minor or concentration who have already taken Introductory Biology 101 and 102.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 101  and BIOL 102  

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Spring Annually

  
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    BIOL 118 - Genetics


    Investigates the nature of genes and genomes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. A combination of approaches from classical Mendelian and modern Molecular Genetics are explored in order to examine the inheritance of both nuclear and extranuclear genes, how genes are expressed and regulated, mutation and DNA repair, and the nature of chromosome-level mutation. Also includes an integrated laboratory that highlights many aspects of the lectures and involves a bioinformatic annotation project using a novel genome.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 101  or BIOL 103 , and BIOL 102 .

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year.

  
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    BIOL 119 - Herpetology


    During the herpetology course, students will be introduced to the diversity and biology of amphibians and “reptiles”. The lecture component will have a global and diverse focus, covering topics of phylogenetics, the origin and evolution of amphibians and reptiles, the global diversity of these taxa, and their biogeography, biology, ecology and conservation. In the laboratory component, students will learn to identify amphibians and reptiles, the anatomy of these taxa, and some field techniques that are useful for studying them. The course assumes that students are familiar with basic evolutionary theory and general biology, and that they are proficient in writing.

    Prerequisites:   , and  

  
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    BIOL 137 - Cell Biology


    The cell as a functional unit is discussed from the molecular level to the whole cell. Included are introductions to the biochemistry and metabolic roles of some of the molecules and macromolecules that are found in cells. Also discussed are the evolution, structure and function of the various subcellular organelles and the cytoskeleton. Emphasis is placed on understanding the molecular mechanisms behind cell physiology and the experimental methods used to determine those mechanisms.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 100 , BIOL 101  or BIOL 103 , and BIOL 102 .

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year.

  
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    BIOL 143 - Neuroscience


    Biology 143 introduces students to the biology of nervous systems and their relationship to behavior and disease.  Mammalian nervous systems are emphasized, but from a comparative standpoint.  The course covers topics ranging from neuronal structure and function, synaptic communication, and intra- and intercellular signaling systems, to the development and regeneration of nervous systems, the processing of sensory information, and complex functions such as learning, memory, cognition, and emotion.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 111   , BIOL 118  , or  

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year.

  
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    BIOL 144 - Bioethics: stem cells, embryos and reproduction


    One of the critical challenges in modern science is our ability to shape human development.  This has brought embryology into the public domain.  Based on our current scientific understanding of the development of the embryo we now have the ability to plan the sex of our children, test for the presence of certain genes and abort those embryos that do not meet certain genetic criteria and clone human cell nuclei to produce stem cells identical to patients who might need them.  The questions we now face are: Even if we can do these things, should we do them?  Under what conditions should such procedures be allowed or forbidden?  Do we wish to support the research that will make such procedures possible?  Using a primarily discussion-based format we will explore the science surrounding these recent technological advances in embryological sciences and address some of the key associated societal and ethical concerns.

    Course Designation/Attribute: VP

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Fall

  
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    BIOL 180 - Biology of Mushrooms


    This is a lecture/lab/field/discussion course focused on the basic and applied biology of mushrooms and related fungi. Topics will include: mushroom diversity, ecology and evolution; identification of New England mushrooms; mushroom cultivation; fermented fungal foods and beverages; ethnomycology, medical mycology; and topics in applied mycology (mycoremediation, alternative uses of fungi and fungal products, etc). The course will include opportunities for weekend field trips to attend local mushroom forays.

     

    Prerequisites: BIOL 101  or BIOL 103 , and BIOL 102 .

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every other year

  
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    BIOL 201 - Ecology of Atlantic Shores


    This course explores the ecology of marine organisms found in diverse Atlantic habitats, ranging from the rocky intertidal of New England to the coral reefs of Bermuda. The course includes lectures, field research, and a one-week trip to the Bermuda Biological Station for Research during semester break. Students must pay a fee (approximately $2500) for the cost of lodging, meals and airfare to Bermuda.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 101  or BIOL 103 , and BIOL 102 . Recommended: BIOL 114  or BIOL 216 .

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every other fall.

  
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    BIOL 206 - Advanced Biostatistics


    During Advanced Biostatistics, students will build on the basic statistical skills they gained in Quantitative Methods and learn to apply more advanced techniques to real data.  Students will also learn to read biostatistical literature, which will build their ability to learn other statistical techniques on their own.  Students will learn a variety of techniques that are frequently used by Biology Faculty at Clark University, and so will enhance the skills students have to effectively do research in the department.  Students will learn to do these statistics in the statistical computing language R, which has become the standard in the sciences for conducting complex statistical analysis.  Students will get the opportunity to analyze data generated in Clark Biology laboratories to reinforce their learning and get valuable hands-on experience doing statistics.

    Prerequisites:

      or permission of the instructor

    Anticipated Terms Offered: every other fall

  
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    BIOL 208 - Conservation and Effective Practice


     

    This course is designed to introduce students to the conceptual, ecological, evolutionary, and practical concepts associated with local conservation issues in anthropogenically-influenced local environments.  Students will use the expertise gained in earlier courses in evolution, genetics and ecology to solve applied problems likely to be associated primarily with the Clark campus, the arboretum and local environments closely associated with the University.  Classes will consist of both discussions of fundamental literature related to conservation biology, selected for relevance to the applied problem the course is intended to solve, and of discussions of targeted applied literature led by practitioners in the appropriate field.  The goal of this course over the long-term is to enhance the sustainability of Clark University from biological and conservation perspectives.

    Prerequisites:

      and   

    Course Designation/Attribute: POP

    Anticipated Terms Offered: spring

  
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    BIOL 209 - The Genome Project


    The Genome Project offers students a unique opportunity to directly apply the bioinformatics and comparative genomics skills acquired during Introduction to Bioinformatics (BINF 101) in the analysis of a novel genome. Each year, students will work collaboratively in small research teams to piece together the entire DNA blueprint of an organism with no existing reference genome. Students will evaluate and apply genome assembly, gene prediction, functional annotation, and variant discovery algorithms to better understand the genome structure, and functional biology of sequenced organisms. Analysis will be conducted within a LINUX environment through the Clark University Supercomputing Cluster.

    Prerequisites: MBB 101  

    Course Designation/Attribute: POP

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Spring

  
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    BIOL 210 - Genomics Seminar


    Sequenced genomes provide powerful new tools for life scientists. Through reading primary literature, students will gain an appreciation for how sequenced genomes have changed the way in which biologists design experiments. The limitations of genomics will also be discussed. Readings will be drawn from various disciplines within the biological sciences, and will demonstrate how genomes have enhanced our understanding of issues relating to human health, biotechnology, agriculture and the environmental sciences. This course will provide an introduction to some of the available genome databases.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 118

    Anticipated Terms Offered: n/a

  
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    BIOL 212 - Microbiomes


    The course will explore current research on microbiomes found in a variety of habitats:  human and plant associated, marine, and soil. Through a mixture of lectures and discussions, students will learn about core ecological concepts relevant to microbiomes and microbiology. Throughout the course, students will read primary scientific literature and gain practical skills in how to understand and interpret research articles. Students will learn about current sequencing and molecular techniques (including 16S rDNA sequncing, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics) used to study microbiomes. Each student will give a final presentation on a microbiome research article of their choice.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 109  - Microbiology

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Spring Annually

  
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    BIOL 216 - Ecology


    Provides an overview of ecology as a scientific discipline. The primary emphasis is on efforts to explain and predict the distribution and abundance of organisms, how ecological communities are composed and why they vary in time and space. Course website http://clarku.edu/faculty/tlivdahl/Ecology/index.html

    Prerequisites: One or more courses from the organismal biology group and one course carrying a FA designation.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year

  
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    BIOL 217 - Ecology of Infectious Disease


    Explores the relationship between infectious disease agents and their hosts and how that interaction can effect changes in the abundance of host and pathogen populations. Factors that contribute to the occurrence and persistence of epidemics, the evolution of virulence and transmission and strategies for controlling epidemics will be considered using theoretical approaches and case studies of diseases affecting humans and other hosts. A wide spectrum of human diseases will be considered, including human pathogens of recent concern (examples include HIV, Lyme Disease, West Nile Virus) and of historic and continuing importance (e.g., schistosomiasis, bubonic plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever).

    Prerequisites: BIOL 216 , or by permission.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered periodically.

  
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    BIOL 218 - Genetics and Disease


    This course focuses on the genetic basis of human disease. Many important disorders are primarily of genetic origin, whereas others reflect the complex interplay between our genes and the environment. The Human Genome Project has provided a wide range of new tools that allow us to understand the genetic underpinnings of both kinds of disease. The course uses a mixed format, with both lecture and discussion of primary literature; students will also pick a human disorder/disease and present a literature review of it in the form of an essay and a poster presentation.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 118 .

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered periodically

  
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    BIOL 219 - Physiological Ecology of Marine Algae


    This course will introduce upper-division undergraduate and graduate students to algal diversity and the physiological ecology of marine algae. The course will include lectures, readings, discussions and laboratory research. Topics of discussion include evolution, biochemistry, molecular biology and physiology of photosynthetic cells. In the laboratory, students will learn various techniques including measurements of photosynthesis, determination of enzyme activity and methods used to examine gene expression. The topics and techniques covered in the course are readily applied to the physiology of a broad range of organisms.

    Prerequisites: Either BIOL 110 , BIOL 118  or BIOL 137 .

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every spring.

  
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    BIOL 221 - Developmental Biology


    Considers the fundamentals of development from the molecular level up to the organismal. Emphasis is placed on the major animal model systems.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 137  or permission of instructor.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every other year.

  
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    BIOL 223 - Topics in Marine Biology


    Provides an opportunity to delve in-depth into selected topics in marine biology. This writing intensive course uses discussions of the primary literature to explore topics in genomics, microbial ecology, oceanography and marine biology. Limited to 15 students.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 114 .

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every other year.

  
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    BIOL 230 - The Human Genome


     

    This course will provide a foundation for the basic concepts in human genomics. Topics covered will include: genome structure and function, human evolution and paleogenomics, human migration, natural selection in human populations, genetic disease, microbiomics, epigenetics, and personalized medicine and ethics. The format of the course will be a combination of group projects, discussion of primary literature, and lecture.

    Prerequisites:

     ,  

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Varied

  
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    BIOL 233 - Animal Locomotion


    Students will explore the functional morphology of locomotion in animals (both invertebrate and vertebrate). The material that students will learn will integrate metabolism and physiology with morphology and ecology. Students will learn how components of the locomotor system work individually, and from the perspective of the organism. The underlying basic physics of how locomotion happens will also be considered. Students will present chapters from the textbook, discuss recently published research articles related to the textbook chapters, and write a term paper that will be a literature review on an aspect of locomotion that particularly fascinates each student. Students will learn to communicate effectively using written, oral, and visual presentation, and to think critically about material they learn about.

  
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    BIOL 234 - Signal Transduction


    An advanced course exploring the various molecular and biochemical pathways through which cells communicate with themselves and the extracellular environment. Topics include protein phosphorylation, G-proteins, phospholipid metabolism, the action of oncogenes and several ionic signaling pathways. Both lectures and student presentations of papers culled from current literature.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 137  or   or permission of instructor.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered periodically.

  
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    BIOL 236 - Biology of Cancer


    According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the cause of one in eight deaths around the world, and kills an even greater proportion of Americans. Over the past thirty years, great strides have been made in understanding the biological and environmental causes of cancer; we have also made stunning progress in the treatment of some cancers. This class will address the cellular, genetic and biochemical basis of cancer, as well as delve into current modes of treatment. Students will choose a human cancer and develop an essay, present a poster and give an oral presentation on it, based on a review of primary literature.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 118 .

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered periodically.

  
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    BIOL 237 - Epigenetics


    With the completion of the sequencing of the human genome, where does science go now?  Many scientists have chosen to investigate our genome at the level “above genetics”, or Epigenetics. Epigenetic changes are not coded in the DNA sequence, yet they are heritable through mitotic or meiotic cell divisions.  Although epigenetic phenomena have been noted for decades, seemingly disparate observations are only now coalescing into an emerging field of Biology.  This seminar style course will investigate the molecular basis of epigenetics and allow students to present research articles and discuss the literature at the intersection of gene expression, chromosome structure, and chromatin dynamics.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 118  

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Spring

  
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    BIOL 238 - Seminar in Cell Biology


    Discussion based on research papers from the current literature, will be focused on an area in cell biology selected by the participants on the first day. The weekly readings will be selected by both the students and the member. The scientific content, as well as the methodology will be discussed in detail.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 137  or permission of the instructor.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every other year.

  
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    BIOL 239 - Evolutionary Developmental Biology


     

    Biology 239 is an upper level seminar in evolutionary developmental biology, or “evo-devo”.  Evo-devo is a major, emerging field that integrates organismal evolutionary biology with molecular embryology, genetics, and genomics.  The goal of this course is to understand how changes in developmental processes have given rise to the incredible biological diversity seen in nature.  We will primarily focus on the evolution of metazoan, or animal, development, but we will also discuss evolution of non-metazoan organismal development.  This course emphasizes analysis and discussion of primary literature dealing with phenomena and questions that interest evolutionary developmental biologists, including (but not limited to): 1) How embryonic development arose and evolved in the transition to multicellularity, 2) The role evolution of developmental processes plays in the evolutionary modification of existing features and the origin of novel structures, 3) Phenotypic plasticity and the linkage between genotype and phenotype, and 4) Interactions between developmental processes and environmental influences.

    Prerequisites:

       and  ; or   or by instructor’s permission

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Fall only

  
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    BIOL 240 - Comparative and Human Physiology


     

    Introduces the principles underlying the physical and chemical processes that maintain animal life. Lectures cover the interdependent function of molecules, cells, organs and tissues as they relate to organismal performance. Human physiology is emphasized from a comparative standpoint.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 137  or

      .   is recommended. Enrollment is normally restricted to juniors, seniors and graduate students.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year.

  
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    BIOL 242 - Animal Behavior


    Examines the causes and evolution of the behavior of animals. The largest part of this course will focus on the adaptive value and evolution of behavioral patterns, but a general overview of behavioral development and causation will be provided to offer the necessary background for interpretation of the ultimate causes of behavior.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 105  and permission of instructor.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every other year.

  
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    BIOL 253 - Darwinian Medicine


    Darwinian (Evolutionary) Medicine is the application of basic evolutionary theory to medical science and public health.  Human diseases have both proximate (mechanistic) and ultimate (evolutionary) causes. The common medical approach has been to ignore the ultimate causes and, instead, focus on the proximate. Thus, we may understand the physiological processes but not the evolutionary significance. In this course, we will focus on the evolutionary causes of disease. The primary goal of this course is to teach research skills while sharpening understanding and application of Darwinian thought. To this end, students will generate hypotheses, collect and analyze data to test these hypotheses, and present the information in both oral and manuscript form.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 105  - Evolution

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Spring

  
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    BIOL 254 - Molecular and Evolutionary Systematics: Assembling the Tree of Life


    Assembling, Visualizing and Analyzing the Tree of Life
    This course is designed for students who are interested in either molecular or evolutionary biology. Topics to be discussed include evolution of genes and genomes, methods used to estimate evolutionary relationships using molecular data, and applications of molecular data to general problems in biology. The course will include lectures, student-led discussions, laboratory projects using computer-based applications and presentations of these projects.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 105

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered periodically.

  
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    BIOL 255 - Viruses: friends or foes?


    Viruses are the ultimate parasites-they hijack the molecular machinery of their host to make more copies of themselves. There are viruses that infect nearly every type of life, from bacteria to beluga whales and even other viruses! Through lectures and in-class reading of current research articles, and in-class discussion this class will explore the amazing biology of viruses, their impact on society and our planet, and several controversial topics relevant to viruses: the growing anti-vaccination movement, research on the evolution of more virulent avian flu viruses, and virus-derived genome editing technologies (e.g. CRISPR). Students will also give a final project presentation on a particular virus of their choosing.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 109  - Microbiology

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Fall annually

  
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    BIOL 256 - Biology of Symbiosis


    This course focuses on the ecological and evolutionary aspects of symbioses, the intimate associations among different species that are ubiquitous in nature. Examples of symbioses include lichens, corals and pollination syndromes. Lectures introduce general theory regarding evolution and ecology of symbioses, and student-led discussions are based on primary research articles focusing on specific systems.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 100 , BIOL 101  or BIOL 103 , and BIOL 102  and BIOL 118  .

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every other year.

  
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    BIOL 258 - Small Scale Land Conservation in Massachusetts


    This course is designed to introduce students to the conceptual, ecological, and practical issues relating to small-scale land conservation. Study sites will be within the north-central Massachusetts region. Lectures given by the professor and local Massachusetts conservation experts will be supplemented by numerous on-site training activities. Students will learn: what ecological attributes of specific sites motive small-scale conservation effords; how various groups work together to maximize the conservation potential of small tracks of land; how land-owners and acquiring entities come to an agreement on a specific conservation document; and what ecological monitoring and other similar continuing effords (e.g., control of invasive species) are involved. Although the course will focus on the Conservation Restriction as a conservation tool, other conservation vehicles will be explored. Participating Massachusetts entities will include: The Trustees of Reservations; the Massachusetts Association of Conservation Commissioners; the North Quabbin Land Trust; and Central Massachusetts service foresters working with the Department of Conservation & Recreation.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 101/103, BIOL 102, Evolution, Ecology, and one additional “hard science” course (could be in another department, such as Geography).

    Course Designation/Attribute: POP

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Fall semester annually

  
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    BIOL 259 - Environmental Monitoring & Emerging Technologies


    Land conservation in the U.S. has shifted in recent decades from primarily a federal responsibility to one of innovative partnerships among land trusts, communities, outdoor and hunting clubs, private landowners, non-profits, corporations, and all levels of our government. Protected lands include recreational lands, urban parks, green and blue spaces, working farms, ranches, forests and other natural lands. Conservation goals and management strategies vary widely across the range of protected habitats, but from a community park to the Adirondack Park invasive species are a primary concern, and expense, for conservation. This course begins with a brief survey of the types and scale of protected lands in the U.S. but the majority of the course will focus on the development of management strategies, and deployment of emerging technologies to map and manage invasive species on a local scale. Students will use aerial drone imagery that they obtain to construct a 3D forest model of a protected wildlife area in Worcester. Subsequently, students will assess ‘forest health’ through the VARI and TGI algorithms, and discuss the values and limits of these emerging approaches. Using a long-term water quality data in conjunction with publicly available land-use data, students will construct and test a TMDL model for nutrient loadings in the Broad Meadow Brook watershed. Students will work throughout the semester in small groups, each of which will focus on one of the topics but participate in discussions and provide feedback on the others. Each group will present their work as a poster on Academic Spree Day. This course is designed to develop skills that are a high priority for businesses, governments, and non-profit organizations seeking the next generation of conservation professionals.

    Course Designation/Attribute: POP

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Spring 2019

  
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    BIOL 262 - Stream and Riparian Ecosystems


    The course, Stream and Riparian Ecosystems, will explore these critically imperiled ecosystems in a holistic manner, considering how these linked ecosystems are structured by geological, geophysical, and fluvial factors, chemical factors, and biological communities.  Because stream ecosystems are embedded within a larger matrix of upland ecosystems, the course will also consider the effects of these on streams.  The course will required students to read and synthesize a wide diversity of papers from the scientific literature. A research or position paper, depending upon the student’s interest, will be required. The course will be divided into three sections of variable length, covering a) the natural structure and functioning of stream/riparian ecosystems; b) the effects of alterations of both the stream and riparian ecosystems themselves, and also alterations of the uplands within which the streams are embedded; and c) the problems and issues in restoration. Socio-economic, political, legal, and ethical considerations will be interwoven within the entire course.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 216  OR BIOL 208  OR BIOL 223  OR BIOL 258  OR similar course in another department OR Permission

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Spring Annually

  
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    BIOL 266 - Chemical Ecology


    This course explores the role of chemical compounds in mediating interactions between organisms.  Through a mixture of lectures, labs and discussions, we will examine the diversity of species interactions, the structure and function of chemical compounds that mediate these interactions, and the methods used to detect these compounds. Examples will include defensive and offensive chemistry mediating antagonistic interactions in plants, insects and microorganisms; the evolution of defenses; chemicals mediating mutualisms, competition, sociality, and sexual selection; and how chemical ecology affects humans. This course will include paper discussions of relevant recent literature, exposure to laboratory techniques in chemical ecology, and a final project on a chemically mediated interaction.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 216  OR CHEM 131  OR Permission

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Spring Bi-annually

  
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    BIOL 290 - Science Careers & Effective Practice


     

    Students will consider what science is, how it works, and what it means to be a scientist.  They will learn about the limits of scientific inquiry, how the scientific method works, and how to test hypotheses and interpret results.  Students will go on to study how scientists write and the types of things they write.  This will culminate in the writing of a grant proposal.  Students will also learn about and discuss scientific ethics, including the ethics behind doing good science, and those focus around publishing.  Finally, students will learn about career options in science (both academic and not), how to write a CV, give a presentation, and apply to graduate school or for other academic positions.  The goal of the course is to teach students about the rarely-discussed, but critically important aspects of being a successful scientist.

    Prerequisites: Must be Seniors. Students should be research active (working in a professor’s lab). Students will need permission to enroll.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Spring

  
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    BIOL 293 - Peer Learning Assistant


    Peer Learning Assistants (PLAs) are undergraduate students who are selected by a faculty member to facilitate teaching and learning activities.  These activities may include:  helping to prepare for or assisting in laboratory sessions, providing feedback on drafts of writing assignments, leading small group discussions, working with individual students who are having difficulty, facilitating group project work (in or out of class), and/or facilitating online discussions. It is the practice at Clark that PLAs do not grade student work.  PLAs generally work 10-15 hours per week but the precise schedule,  activities, and units earned are determined on an individual basis with the supervising faculty/staff member.  Students who receive credit for being a PLA participate in weekly meetings to review the experiences of PLAs, discuss various aspects of science education and student learning, and receive guidance on upcoming projects.  Students will provide written reflections about their experiences and goals mid-semester and a final paper based on the teaching/learning experience at the end of the semester.  This course is offered on a Pass/Fail basis.  Registration is by instructor permission only and you must choose the number of units (0.5 or 1.0). May be repeatable for credit.



    Prerequisites: Registration by instructor permission only.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Fall and Spring

  
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    BIOL 296 - Special Topics in Biology


    This course addresses current or timely topics in the study of Biology, that are in a pilot phase or are know to be one time offerings.  Special Topics can vary from semester to semester.

    May be repeated for credit

     

     

    Anticipated Terms Offered: varied

  
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    BIOL 297 - Honors in Biology


    Readings and research for students in the honors program. May be repeatable for credit.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year.

  
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    BIOL 298 - Internship


    Independent research at off-campus sites for the purpose of broadening the backgrounds of qualified students. Each internship is guided by an on-site professional and a department faculty member. May be repeatable for credit.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year.

  
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    BIOL 299 - Directed Study


    Advanced readings or research under the direction of a department faculty member. May be repeatable for credit.

    Prerequisites: Permission of instructor.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year.

  
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    BIOL 301 - Ecology of Atlantic Shores


    This course explores the ecology of marine organisms found in diverse Atlantic habitats, ranging from the rocky intertidal of New England to the coral reefs of Bermuda. The course includes lectures, field research, and a one-week trip to the Bermuda Biological Station for Research during semester break. Students must pay a fee (approximately $2500) for the cost of lodging, meals and airfare to Bermuda.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 101  or BIOL 103 , and BIOL 102 . Recommended: BIOL 114  or BIOL 216 .

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every other fall.

  
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    BIOL 306 - Advanced Biostatistics


    During Advanced Biostatistics, students will build on the basic statistical skills they gained in Quantitative Methods and learn to apply more advanced techniques to real data.  Students will also learn to read biostatistical literature, which will build their ability to learn other statistical techniques on their own.  Students will learn a variety of techniques that are frequently used by Biology Faculty at Clark University, and so will enhance the skills students have to effectively do research in the department.  Students will learn to do these statistics in the statistical computing language R, which has become the standard in the sciences for conducting complex statistical analysis.  Students will get the opportunity to analyze data generated in Clark Biology laboratories to reinforce their learning and get valuable hands-on experience doing statistics.

    Prerequisites:

      or permission of the instructor

    Anticipated Terms Offered: every other fall

  
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    BIOL 308 - Conservation and Effective Practice


     

    This course is designed to introduce students to the conceptual, ecological, evolutionary, and practical concepts associated with local conservation issues in anthropogenically-influenced local environments.  Students will use the expertise gained in earlier courses in evolution, genetics and ecology to solve applied problems likely to be associated primarily with the Clark campus, the arboretum and local environments closely associated with the University.  Classes will consist of both discussions of fundamental literature related to conservation biology, selected for relevance to the applied problem the course is intended to solve, and of discussions of targeted applied literature led by practitioners in the appropriate field.  The goal of this course over the long-term is to enhance the sustainability of Clark University from biological and conservation perspectives.

    Prerequisites:

      and  

  
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    BIOL 309 - The Genome Project


    The Genome Project offers students a unique opportunity to directly apply the bioinformatics and comparative genomics skills they acquired during Introduction to Bioinformatics (BINF 101) in the analysis of a novel genome. Each year, students will work collaboratively in small research teams to piece together the entire DNA blueprint of an organism with no existing reference genome. Students will evaluate and apply genome assembly, gene prediction, functional annotation, and variant discovery algorithms to better understand the genome structure, and functional biology of sequenced organisms. Analysis will be conducted within a LINUX environment through the Clark University Supercomputing Cluster.

    Prerequisites: MBB 101  

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Spring

  
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    BIOL 310 - Genomics Seminar


    Sequenced genomes provide powerful new tools for life scientists. Through reading primary literature, students will gain an appreciation for how sequenced genomes have changed the way in which biologists design experiments. The limitations of genomics will also be discussed. Readings will be drawn from various disciplines within the biological sciences, and will demonstrate how genomes have enhanced our understanding of issues relating to human health, biotechnology, agriculture and the environmental sciences. This course will provide an introduction to some of the available genome databases.

  
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    Biol 312 - Microbiomes


    The course will explore current research on microbiomes found in a variety of habitats:  human and plant associated, marine, and soil. Through a mixture of lectures and discussions, students will learn about core ecological concepts relevant to microbiomes and microbiology. Throughout the course, students will read primary scientific literature and gain practical skills in how to understand and interpret research articles. Students will learn about current sequencing and molecular techniques (including 16S rDNA sequncing, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics) used to study microbiomes. Each student will give a final presentation on a microbiome research article of their choice.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Spring Annually

  
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    BIOL 315 - Ecology of Infectious Disease


    Explores the relationship between infectious disease agents and their hosts and how that interaction can effect changes in the abundance of host and pathogen populations. Factors that contribute to the occurrence and persistence of epidemics, the evolution of virulence and transmission and strategies for controlling epidemics will be considered using theoretical approaches and case studies of diseases affecting humans and other hosts. A wide spectrum of human diseases will be considered, including human pathogens of recent concern (examples include HIV, Lyme Disease, West Nile Virus) and of historic and continuing importance (e.g., schistosomiasis, bubonic plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever).

    Prerequisites: BIOL 216  or by permission.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered periodically.

  
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    BIOL 316 - Ecology


    Provides an overview of ecology as a scientific discipline. The primary emphasis is on efforts to explain and predict the distribution and abundance of organisms, how ecological communities are composed and why they vary in time and space. one or more courses from the organismal biology group and one college-level math course.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year

  
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    BIOL 317 - Research


    This is a variable unit graduate course for students engaged in research at the PhD level.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Every Semester, including summers

  
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    BIOL 318 - Genetics and Disease


    This course focuses on the genetic basis of human disease. Many important disorders are primarily of genetic origin, whereas others reflect the complex interplay between our genes and the environment. The Human Genome Project has provided a wide range of new tools that allow us to understand the genetic underpinnings of both kinds of disease. The course uses a mixed format, with both lecture and discussion of primary literature; students will also pick a human disorder/disease and present a literature review of it in the form of an essay and a poster presentation.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 118 .

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered periodically

  
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    BIOL 321 - Developmental Biology


    Considers the fundamentals of development from the molecular level up to the organismal. Emphasis is placed on the major animal model systems.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 137  or permission of instructor.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every other year.

  
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    BIOL 322 - Physiological Ecology of Marine Algae


    This course will introduce upper-division undergraduate and graduate students to algal diversity and the physiological ecology of marine algae. The course will include lectures, readings, discussions and laboratory research. Topics of discussion include evolution, biochemistry, molecular biology and physiology of photosynthetic cells. In the laboratory, students will learn various techniques including measurements of photosynthesis, determination of enzyme activity and methods used to examine gene expression. The topics and techniques covered in the course are readily applied to the physiology of a broad range of organisms.

    Prerequisites: Either BIOL 110 , BIOL 118  or BIOL 137 .

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every spring.

  
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    BIOL 323 - Topics in Marine Biology


    Provides an opportunity to delve in-depth into selected topics in marine biology. This writing intensive course uses discussions of the primary literature to explore topics in genomics, microbial ecology, oceanography and marine biology. Limited to 15 students.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 114 .

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every other year.

  
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    BIOL 330 - The Human Genome


    This course will provide a foundation for the basic concepts in human genomics. Topics covered will include: genome structure and function, human evolution and paleogenomics, human migration, natural selection in human populations, genetic disease, microbiomics, epigenetics, and personalized medicine and ethics. The format of the course will be a combination of group projects, discussion of primary literature, and lecture.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Varied

  
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    BIOL 333 - Animal Locomotion


    Students will explore the functional morphology of locomotion in animals (both invertebrate and vertebrate). The material that students will learn will integrate metabolism and physiology with morphology and ecology. Students will learn how components of the locomotor system work individually, and from the perspective of the organism. The underlying basic physics of how locomotion happens will also be considered. Students will present chapters from the textbook, discuss recently published research articles related to the textbook chapters, and write a term paper that will be a literature review on an aspect of locomotion that particularly fascinates each student. Students will learn to communicate effectively using written, oral, and visual presentation, and to think critically about material they learn about.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: various

  
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    BIOL 334 - Signal Transduction


    An advanced course exploring the various molecular and biochemical pathways through which cells communicate with themselves and the extracellular environment. Topics include protein phosphorylation, G-proteins, phospholipid metabolism, the action of oncogenes and several ionic signalling pathways. Both lectures and student presentations of papers culled from current literature.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 137  or BCMB 271  or permission of instructor.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered periodically.

  
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    BIOL 336 - Biology of Cancer


    According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the cause of one in eight deaths around the world, and kills an even greater proportion of Americans. Over the past thirty years, great strides have been made in understanding the biological and environmental causes of cancer; we have also made stunning progress in the treatment of some cancers. This class will address the cellular, genetic and biochemical basis of cancer, as well as delve into current modes of treatment. Students will choose a human cancer and develop an essay, present a poster and give an oral presentation on it, based on a review of primary literature.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 137  or   ; BIOL 118  recommended.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered periodically.

  
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    BIOL 337 - Epigenetics


    With the completion of the sequencing of the human genome, where does science go now?  Many scientists have chosen to investigate our genome at the level “above genetics”, or Epigenetics. Epigenetic changes are not coded in the DNA sequence, yet they are heritable through mitotic or meiotic cell divisions.  Although epigenetic phenomena have been noted for decades, seemingly disparate observations are only now coalescing into an emerging field of Biology.  This seminar style course will investigate the molecular basis of epigenetics and allow students to present research articles and discuss the literature at the intersection of gene expression, chromosome structure, and chromatin dynamics.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Spring

  
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    BIOL 338 - Seminar in Cell Biology


    Discussion based on research papers from the current literature, will be focused on an area in cell biology selected by the participants on the first day. The weekly readings will be selected by both the students and the member. The scientific content, as well as the methodology will be discussed in detail.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 137  or permission of the instructor.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every other year.

  
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    BIOL 339 - Evolutionary Developmental Biology


     

    Biology 339 is an upper level seminar in evolutionary developmental biology, or “evo-devo”.  Evo-devo is a major, emerging field that integrates organismal evolutionary biology with molecular embryology, genetics, and genomics.  The goal of this course is to understand how changes in developmental processes have given rise to the incredible biological diversity seen in nature.  We will primarily focus on the evolution of metazoan, or animal, development, but we will also discuss evolution of non-metazoan organismal development.  This course emphasizes analysis and discussion of primary literature dealing with phenomena and questions that interest evolutionary developmental biologists, including (but not limited to): 1) How embryonic development arose and evolved in the transition to multicellularity, 2) The role evolution of developmental processes plays in the evolutionary modification of existing features and the origin of novel structures, 3) Phenotypic plasticity and the linkage between genotype and phenotype, and 4) Interactions between developmental processes and environmental influences.

    Prerequisites:

      or permission of the instructor

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Fall only

  
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    BIOL 340 - Comparative & Human Physiology


    Introduces the principles underlying physiological function. Lectures cover the subcellular, cellular and organ levels of organization and place a primary emphasis on the integrative processes whereby all of the diverse organs and systems contribute to the performance of the complete individual.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 137  or   . Enrollment is normally restricted to juniors, seniors and graduate students.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year.

  
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    BIOL 342 - Animal Behavior


    Examines the causes and evolution of the behavior of animals. The largest part of this course will focus on the adaptive value and evolution of behavioral patterns, but a general overview of behavioral development and causation will be provided to offer the necessary background for interpretation of the ultimate causes of behavior.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 105  or BIOL 220  and permission of instructor.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every other year.

  
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    BIOL 350 - Graduate Research Seminar


    Invited lecturers present seminars on varied research topics. Required for all graduate students. Offered for variable credit.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every semester

  
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    BIOL 353 - Darwinian Medicine


    Darwinian (Evolutionary) Medicine is the application of basic evolutionary theory to medical science and public health.  Human diseases have both proximate (mechanistic) and ultimate (evolutionary) causes. The common medical approach has been to ignore the ultimate causes and, instead, focus on the proximate. Thus, we may understand the physiological processes but not the evolutionary significance. In this course, we will focus on the evolutionary causes of disease. The primary goal of this course is to teach research skills while sharpening understanding and application of Darwinian thought. To this end, students will generate hypotheses, collect and analyze data to test these hypotheses, and present the information in both oral and manuscript form.

     

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Spring

  
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    BIOL 354 - Molecular and Evolutionary Systematics:Assembling the Tree of Life


    Assembling, Visualizing and Analyzing the Tree of Life
    This course is designed for students who are interested in either molecular or evolutionary biology. Topics to be discussed include evolution of genes and genomes, methods used to estimate evolutionary relationships using molecular data, and applications of molecular data to general problems in biology. The course will include lectures, student-led discussions, laboratory projects using computer-based applications and presentations of these projects.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered periodically.

  
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    BIOL 355 - Viruses: friends or foes?


    Viruses are the ultimate parasites-they hijack the molecular machinery of their host to make more copies of themselves. There are viruses that infect nearly every type of life, from bacteria to beluga whales and even other viruses! Through lectures and in-class reading of current research articles, and in-class discussion this class will explore the amazing biology of viruses, their impact on society and our planet, and several controversial topics relevant to viruses: the growing anti-vaccination movement, research on the evolution of more virulent avian flu viruses, and virus-derived genome editing technologies (e.g. CRISPR). Students will also give a final project presentation on a particular virus of their choosing.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Fall annually

  
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    BIOL 356 - Biology of Symbiosis


    This course focuses on the ecological and evolutionary aspects of symbioses, the intimate associations among different species that are ubiquitous in nature. Examples of symbioses include lichens, corals and pollination syndromes. Lectures introduce general theory regarding evolution and ecology of symbioses, and student-led discussions are based on primary research articles focusing on specific systems.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 100 , BIOL 101  or BIOL 103 , and BIOL 102 .

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every other year.

  
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    BIOL 358 - Small Scale Land Conservation in Massachusetts


    This course is designed to introduce students to the conceptual, ecological, and practical issues relating to small-scale land conservation. Study sites will be within the north-central Massachusetts region. Lectures given by the professor and local Massachusetts conservation experts will be supplemented by numerous on-site training activities. Students will learn: what ecological attributes of specific sites motive small-scale conservation effords; how various groups work together to maximize the conservation potential of small tracks of land; how land-owners and acquiring entities come to an agreement on a specific conservation document; and what ecological monitoring and other similar continuing effords (e.g., control of invasive species) are involved. Although the course will focus on the Conservation Restriction as a conservation tool, other conservation vehicles will be explored. Participating Massachusetts entities will include: The Trustees of Reservations; the Massachusetts Association of Conservation Commissioners; the North Quabbin Land Trust; and Central Massachusetts service foresters working with the Department of Conservation & Recreation.

     

  
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    BIOL 359 - Environmental Monitoring & Emerging Technologies


    Land conservation in the U.S. has shifted in recent decades from primarily a federal responsibility to one of innovative partnerships among land trusts, communities, outdoor and hunting clubs, private landowners, non-profits, corporations, and all levels of our government. Protected lands include recreational lands, urban parks, green and blue spaces, working farms, ranches, forests and other natural lands. Conservation goals and management strategies vary widely across the range of protected habitats, but from a community park to the Adirondack Park invasive species are a primary concern, and expense, for conservation. This course begins with a brief survey of the types and scale of protected lands in the U.S. but the majority of the course will focus on the development of management strategies, and deployment of emerging technologies to map and manage invasive species on a local scale. Students will use aerial drone imagery that they obtain to construct a 3D forest model of a protected wildlife area in Worcester. Subsequently, students will assess ‘forest health’ through the VARI and TGI algorithms, and discuss the values and limits of these emerging approaches. Using a long-term water quality data in conjunction with publicly available land-use data, students will construct and test a TMDL model for nutrient loadings in the Broad Meadow Brook watershed. Students will work throughout the semester in small groups, each of which will focus on one of the topics but participate in discussions and provide feedback on the others. Each group will present their work as a poster on Academic Spree Day. This course is designed to develop skills that are a high priority for businesses, governments, and non-profit organizations seeking the next generation of conservation professionals.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Spring 2019

  
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    BIOL 362 - Stream and Riparian Ecosystems


    The course, Stream and Riparian Ecosystems, will explore these critically imperiled ecosystems in a holistic manner, considering how these linked ecosystems are structured by geological, geophysical, and fluvial factors, chemical factors, and biological communities.  Because stream ecosystems are embedded within a larger matrix of upland ecosystems, the course will also consider the effects of these on streams.  The course will required students to read and synthesize a wide diversity of papers from the scientific literature. A research or position paper, depending upon the student’s interest, will be required. The course will be divided into three sections of variable length, covering a) the natural structure and functioning of stream/riparian ecosystems; b) the effects of alterations of both the stream and riparian ecosystems themselves, and also alterations of the uplands within which the streams are embedded; and c) the problems and issues in restoration. Socio-economic, political, legal, and ethical considerations will be interwoven within the entire course.

    Prerequisites: Permission

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Spring Annually

  
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    BIOL 366 - Chemical Ecology


    This course explores the role of chemical compounds in mediating interactions between organisms.  Through a mixture of lectures, labs and discussions, we will examine the diversity of species interactions, the structure and function of chemical compounds that mediate these interactions, and the methods used to detect these compounds. Examples will include defensive and offensive chemistry mediating antagonistic interactions in plants, insects and microorganisms; the evolution of defenses; chemicals mediating mutualisms, competition, sociality, and sexual selection; and how chemical ecology affects humans. This course will include paper discussions of relevant recent literature, exposure to laboratory techniques in chemical ecology, and a final project on a chemically mediated interaction.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Spring Bi-annually

  
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    BIOL 385 - Proposal Writing


    Offered for Variable credit for Biology PhD students who are writing their proposal.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Every Semester

  
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    BIOL 390 - Science Careers & Effective Practice


     

    Students will consider what science is, how it works, and what it means to be a scientist.  They will learn about the limits of scientific inquiry, how the scientific method works, and how to test hypotheses and interpret results.  Students will go on to study how scientists write and the types of things they write.  This will culminate in the writing of a grant proposal.  Students will also learn about and discuss scientific ethics, including the ethics behind doing good science, and those focus around publishing.  Finally, students will learn about career options in science (both academic and not), how to write a CV, give a presentation, and apply to graduate school or for other academic positions.  The goal of the course is to teach students about the rarely-discussed, but critically important aspects of being a successful scientist.

    Prerequisites: Students must be Masters, or PhD in the natural sciences. They should be research active (working in a professor’s lab). Students will need permission to enroll.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Spring

  
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    BIOL 394 - Dissertation Writing


    This is a variable unit, graduate course for students engaged in writing a Ph.D. Dissertation. 

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Every Semester, including summers

  
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    BIOL 396 - Master’s Thesis


    This is a variable unit, graduate course for students engaged in writing a Master’s thesis.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year

  
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    BIOL 397 - Doctoral Dissertation


    Offered for variable credit.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year

  
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    BIOL 398 - Internship


    Academic experience taking place in the field with an opportunity to earn credit.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered Every Semester

  
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    BIOL 399 - Directed Study


    Advanced readings or research under the direction of a department faculty member.
     

    Offered for variable credit. May be repeatable for credit.

    Anticipated Terms Offered: Offered every year